Welcome Back, CEC, & IMBES

Welcome Back, CEC, & IMBES

Educational Research High School Middle School The Study Academy Report

Greetings! Welcome back! I hope your summer was everything you’d ever hoped it would be and more.

First off, please let me introduce myself: My name is Ariana. I enjoy long walks on the beach, sunsets, and filing OSRs. In other words, I am the new School Administrator, and I am pleased to handle all of your administrative needs. I have also assumed the role of Blog Master, so here we go:

Once again, welcome back! We’re glad to see so many new and returning faces, and we’re excited about everything that this year has in store. Already, we’ve had our high school trip to the Canadian Ecology Centre, Parent Welcome Meeting, taken student card photos, had our first assembly and fire drill of the year (which everyone aced), and will soon begin our extracurricular clubs and activities. We’re powering through and loving every second of it. On to thing two!

Various balls on the groundDuring the first week back, we had our start-of-year high school trip to the Canadian Ecology Centre (CEC). For those of you who don’t know, the CEC is a non-profit environmental science education and research facility. They share the landscape with Samuel de Champlain Park, as well as the goal of “conserving and protecting our natural environment.” Their aim is to “[facilitate] informed choices [for all of their visitors] – presenting a better understanding of the conservation and development issues related to the environment and [associated] sectors. The CEC is also home to the Canadian Institute of Forestry”, and from September 6th to 9th, they housed our high school students. During that week, Grades 9 – 12 got to engage in some awesome activities, including: Team building and other group exercises, swimming, canoeing, drumming, astronomy, night vision and campfire construction, wilderness survival, stream and aquatic study, Creatures of the Night and Living Discovery Lab, orienteering and introduction to GPS, and intro to GIS. It was a packed week, but the group had a great time and learned some important information about our environment, and themselves, in the process. Trips like this are a great way to supplement classroom learning, facilitate teamwork, and present an opportunity for students to participate in outdoor education, but they also provide a practical understanding of nature and the environment, situating it in a context that then becomes more relatable and, thus, more actionable. We are dedicated, through these experiences, to the growth of our students both in the classroom and beyond; at present and into the indefinite future.

Lastly, we are very pleased to announce that our very own Jason Krell, Patrick Dolecki, and Anderson Todd have been accepted to present their research at the International Mind, Brain, & Education Society’s (IMBES) 2016 conference here in Toronto! IMBES’ mission is to “facilitate cross-cultural collaboration in biology, education, and the cognitive and developmental sciences.” They aim to “improve the state of knowledge in, and dialogue between, education, biology, and the developmental and cognitive sciences; create and develop resources for scientists, practitioners, public policy makers, and the public; and create and identify useful information, research directions, and promising educational practices. [They] invite researchers and practitioners at all levels of education to explore the questions and proposed solutions that emerge at the intersection of mind, brain, and education.” This year’s conference featured keynotes from Dr. Clancy Blair, on The Development of Self-Regulation in Early Childhood; Dr. Tania Lombrozo, on The Good, The Bad, and the Beautiful (evidence for broad/simple explanation preference in children and adults); Dr. Marla Sokolowski, on Gene-Environment Interplay in Individual Differences in Behaviour; Dr. Janet Werker, on Perceptual Foundations of Language Acquisition; and Dr. Pasi Sahlberg, on About the Facts and the Myths about Education in Finland: Mind, brain, and smart education policies.

Neurofeedback schematic diagramKrell, Dolecki, & Todd (2016)’s poster, Executive Functions Through Attention, covered their research on the effects of neurofeedback training (NT) on attention and executive functioning (e.g., self-regulation, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, problem-solving, planning) in Gr. 5 – 8 students. NT teaches individuals to self-regulate by providing direct feedback on temporal and spatial patterns in brain activity. Using EEG measurement, it rewards individuals for attending effectively, encouraging them to attend further. In their presentation, they noted the changing landscape of education, with increasingly personalized learning, expanded accessibility, and new desired learning outcomes centred on adaptive competencies. Despite this, as well as the promising evidence of its effectiveness for individuals with and without ADHD, educational research on NT is presently scarce. This motivated them to examine the relationship between the use of this specific technology and student attention/executive functioning. After acquiring the appropriate assent and consent, data was gathered from semi-weekly, 30-minute training sessions, and performance was assessed by parents and teachers. Results support that both teachers and parents observed decreases in the relative occurrence of inattentive behaviours over the course of the NT sessions. This supports the hypothesis that NT can be effectively used in a classroom setting to supplement student learning and existing growth, and improve attention, planning, and organizational skills. In short, we’ve not seen the end of NT at The Study Academy, and we’re excited to see what else we can do with it moving forward.

That’s all for now! Stay tuned for more exciting news and events.

The Study Academy Lab Campaign : Turning Science into Smarts

The Study Academy Lab Campaign : Turning Science into Smarts

Educational Research High School Middle School

Hello Readers,

I also wanted to mention to you all the exciting news about The Study Academy Lab’s campaign to build the first Canadian K-12 Educational Research Lab! In an interview with Principle Jason Krell, he states that “there has been some considerable work going on to initiate funding for not just research activities, but for a fully operational lab at The Study Academy.”

Neurfeedback training for ADHDWell, today they have launched their campaign with an Indiegogo crowd-funding platform and an additional video to communicate their vision (http://vimeo.com/69015735) .The footage was taken by Vlad Lunin (http://vladlunin.com/)  at the school and is a mixture of the old and new; old in the images of the building and in the personal interaction between student and teacher, and new in the implementation of novel and groundbreaking technologies (Neurofeedback headsets in school).

The video conveys The Study’ Academy’s Lab’s motto of turning “Science into Smarts”. The lab will work on the premise that change in Education must be recognized from the grass-root level, with the emergence of empirical evidence. In fact, it is the Study Academy’s vision to develop such empirical evidence with tools and methods for training wisdom through developing cognition, training attention, and goal setting.

The three main goals of the lab are

  1. To bridge the gap between research and pedagogy which the public and private school systems have ignored. We will be researching methods and tools that will augment traditional learning processes and replace worn out teaching models.
  2. To give students the ability to better use their brains to allow for more effective learning. In other words, we want to train students to intelligently use their intelligence.
  3. To design tools and better implement technology that will train students’ attention, problem solving abilities, thinking and rationality. In essence, we want students to gain not only knowledge but wisdom as well.

The research lab will offer an unprecedented opportunity to work with existing basic research findings from the fields of Cognitive Science, Psychology and Neuroscience and to generate and test hypotheses in the classroom.

Also,w e have a great team to head this growing research lab, including Patrick K Dolecki as the Research Coordinator, Jason Krell, John Vervaeke  (http://www.newcollege.utoronto.ca/academics/new-college-academic-programs/buddhism-psychology-and-mental-health/centre-for-buddhism-and-psychology/the-buddhism-psychology-mental-health-program/faculty/dr-john-vervaeke/), a University of Toronto Professor and our Research Advisor and Anderson Todd as our Creative Advisor. They have all been working hard to create this facility from the ground up!

John Vervake giving a talk about Mindfulness Meditation at a Ted Talk at U of T

That is why we need your help, Readers. Through the website Indiegogo, The Study Academy hopes to raise money that will assist their researching and designing projects.The funding will contribute to such things as providing wages for the research team, pay for a 3D printer, new hardware (including neurofeedback, headsets, eye tracking devices and motion detection cameras), cloud back up services to secure data, software and a small business server to handle such lab software.

The Study Academy Lab will be of great interest to a rather wide audience including families of school aged children who have an interest in new educational model that will empower their children and prepare them for the careers and independence that await them; to educators and school administrators who support the need for the educational reform and progressive and evidence based teaching methods; and to students who have an interest in participating in learning activities directed towards their specific profile.

Thus, it is the hope of The Study Academy to join the conversation of what education “should be” and how it will reform in the coming years. Here at The Study Academy  “we not only want to teach students, we want to make them smarter.” Please help support our cause so we can create a better tomorrow for students. They deserve it.

Theoretical Thursday: Reliable New Method of Detecting Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Theoretical Thursday: Reliable New Method of Detecting Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Middle School The Study Academy Report

Hello Readers,

And welcome to another Theoretical Thursday! As most of you may already know, every Thursday I try to bring you the most recent  and exciting research and theories on Education, Psychology and Neuroscience. This week’s post will be no exception as we delve into the research done on Autism and how this could help future students.

Functional Connectivity in ASD relative to control Neuroscientists from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (http://casemed.case.edu/) and University of Toronto’s own Luis Garcia Dominguez Ph.D (http://www.mehri.ca/People.html#Luis) and Jose Luis Perez Velazquez Ph.D  (http://www.neuroscience.utoronto.ca/faculty/ list/perezvelazquez.htm) have developed an efficient and reliable new method of detecting Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. They have discovered a way to distinguish an ASD brain from a non-ASD brain by simply looking at the   neural activity inside it!

How you ask? Well, of course I’m going to tell you, my loyal Readers. They have recorded and analyzed patterns of brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Essentially this device records the natural occurring magnetic fields that occur in our brains that results from electrical currents. These electrical currents are like the communication pathway that connect the different parts of our brain. In the study with 19 children, nine with ASD, had 141 sensors attached to each child’s cortex. Don’t worry, its painless! With this device they were able to determine the brain’s overall functional connectivity in both the control and ASD group.

functional connectivity ASD compared to control

The results were impressive!So, allow me to summarize a bit of what they found in this fascinating study. They found stronger connections between rear and frontal areas of the brain in ASD group. However there was an asymmetrical flow of information to the frontal region, an area designated for such things as planning, attention and motivation. Results from spatial maps of inputs from the brain also showed less complexity and structure in the ASD group.

This discovery really opens some doors.For instance, this discovery  can serve as a new tool that may complement existing diagnostic behavioral tests for ASD. Also by helping to identify anatomical differences in those with ASD, imagine the future treatments that can be developed that are tailored around neuroscientific fact. Even if you aren’t a scientist, one must admit this is very exciting, and for students too. To be able to have new doors opened in diagnosis and future treatments can help a student develop and succeed in their own learning environment.

 If you would like to read them in detail you can find them published on the online journal, PLOS ONE, athttp://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0061493

Theoretical Thursday: The Positive Effects of Music on Children

Theoretical Thursday: The Positive Effects of Music on Children

The Study Academy Report

Hello Readers,

Over the past week and a half, my posts have divulged the creative endeavors  of The Study Academy and the results of scientists on the effects of such creativity in the classroom.  In particular, I discussed the importance of creativity and innovation in fostering divergent thinking in young students (http://thestudyacademy.ca/theoretical-thursday-creativity-innovation-education/). I had also mentioned this week that music classes have been made available at The Study Academy, and therefore students are being given another opportunity to foster such thinking processes (http://thestudyacademy.ca/study-academy-report-music-classes-study-academy/). However, the importance of music goes  beyond divergent thinking.

divergent thinking, creativity and music In one study by North & colleagues (2000), research stated that music allows children to satisfy their emotional needs, both while listening and when actively involved in music making. Active participation in music classes has also been found to enhance a student’s prelinguistic communicative gestures and social development, in particular social behaviour. (Gerry et. al., 2012).

Because of such capacities of music to affect us so deeply, therapies for students with attentional difficulties  and Autism Spectrum Disorder have been proven to be quite effective. Music therapy is one type of therapy available to those with attentional difficulties and Autism Spectrum Disorder. The idea is that a certified music therapist uses music (and its capacity to affect one physically , emotionally , mentally, and socially) to help clients to improve or maintain their health. Musical interventions have been designed to mange stress, alleviate pain, enhance memory, improve communication and promote physical rehabilitation too.

SCOPEThere are in fact a few brain based reasons why music works in such beneficial ways for us. Firstly, you must understand that music has always had a core function in our brain. My goodness, from an evolutionary standpoint, music precedes even language! Even day old infants, who are still developing, can detect patterns in music. For this reason, it seem that music has some basic engrained influence over us. One of the more important reasons made available, is that we have emotional and physiologic responses to music. We can experience anything from our heart rates increasing to chills down our spine depending on the types of melodies that reach our ears. On the other hand, music also taps into our emotions, and  allows one to easily access our emotions in a beneficial and therapeutic manner. Therefore, in trained hands, music has the capacity to effectively help. In this respect, music can definitely serve as a positive instrument for students who experience challenges in the classroom.

For a student suffering from attentional difficulties , music can bolster attention and focus, while reducing their hyperactivity. It is the structure within music that can help them. The reason for this is because the rhythm within the music can allow the child to plan, anticipate and react in a structured way. With time and practice, a child with attentional difficulties  can apply their strategies they have learned from music to the classroom.

Music therapy patient needs tables music selectionsMusic therapy is useful with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Disorder also owing to the noted sensitivity Autistic Spectrum Disorder patients have to music. Evidence of this is shown in a study found in the Pertanika Journal (2012). Over a ten month period, when weekly music therapy sessions were given to children for an hour, there were notable improvements made in inattentive behaviour, restlessness, aggression, and noisiness.

Overall research has shown that music does indeed have quite a positive effect on many children! I will leave you today with a picture summary of some of the things I have discussed today and hope that maybe the next time you listen to your Ipod, you will wonder too, what your music is doing for you.


Theoretical Thursday: Mindfulness Meditation to Benefit Students

Theoretical Thursday: Mindfulness Meditation to Benefit Students

The Study Academy Report

Hello Readers and welcome to the Fourth Week of Theoretical Thursday!

As I mentioned on Tuesday’s blog, there has been an integration of Mindfulness and Meditation practices into the Educational System, so today I want to talk to you more about the beneficial effects that Researchers have found. However first off I want to try to provide you a better understanding of Mindfulness.

The Buddhist tradition has a long history of dealing with problems of the mind and body. In fact, it already predated Western Psychology as a science by more than eighteen and  a half centuries. To be particular, the Abhidhamma, a collection of writings that outline the doctrines of Buddhism, revealed an explicitly psychological content, providing  details on such sensation, perception, emotion and cognition. That being the case, there were already ways of dealing with many of the problems that society still faces today.

As I previously mentioned Mindfulness Meditation combines both an open mind as well as a focused attention. One focuses on one’s breath and is open to their environment. With time and practice this practice is integrated into how one see’s their every day life. So in this way, the mechanisms of mindfulness meditation, with their emphasis on developing openness and awareness to one’s inner thoughts, represent a powerful coping strategy and more adaptive way of processing in everyday life (Shapiro et al., 2006).

There has been several studies of Mindfulness and Meditation in schools that have yielded results that coincide with Shapiro’s sentiment, such as:

  • Improved self-control and self-awareness among children ages 7-9 who initially lack such skills (Flook et al. 2010)
  • Improved attention skills among elementary school children (Schonert-Reichl and Lawlor 2010; Napoli, Krech, and Holley 2005; Zylowska et al. 2008)
  • Decreased anxiety among students in grades 7-8 (Semple, Reid, and Miller 2005)
  • Decreased test anxiety in students grades 1-3 (Napoli, Krech, and Holley 2005)
  • Decreased blood pressure in youths ages 6-18 (Black, Milam, and Sussman 2009; Barnes, Beiser, and Treiber 2004)
  • Reduced misbehavior/aggression among children and adolescents (Schonert-Reichl and Lawlor 2010; Black, Milam, and Sussman 2009; Barnes, Treiber, and Johnson 2003)

If you are interested in finding out more about the many benefits, I suggest you read the meta-analysis Sedlmeier and colleagues from the Chemnitz University of Technology: http://www.ashanamind.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/physiological-effects_Sedlmeier_12.pdf

I believe that part of the reason for these results is that Mindfulness and Meditation teach students how to engage in cognitive restructuring. What I mean is that by bringing one’s attention to oneself and their surroundings, as well as incorporating an open mind to situations, an individual can adjust their normal and potentially negative reactions. Research in neuro-imaging studies has indeed shown this, where  through inhibition that an automatic reactive attitude shift towards a more open minded attitude (Brown and Ryan, 2003; Ryan et al., 1997).

This type of reconstrual is  done through breaking up the relevance of objects constructed in their mind.One is metaphorically stepping back, looking through the thought and in doing so they can break apart chunks of sequential thought patterns.The cognitive restructuring of what the individuals finds salient opens up the opportunity for a more open-minded mindset that can positively affect the appraisal process of many situations anxiety, blood pressure, and social interaction.

There has been programs popping up in Toronto that teach students Mindfulness and Meditation, however it is not fully introduced into the Educational system as of yet. However, I believe with time and the persistence of certain programs like Mindfulness in Schools (http://mindfulnessinschools.org/), it will be, and at that point Education will no longer simply consider what it puts into the minds of the children, but also how it can change the mind within it too!

Thank you and I hope you drop by next week!






Theoretical Thursday: Challenges of Executive Dysfunction in Academic Setting and Possible Treatment

Theoretical Thursday: Challenges of Executive Dysfunction in Academic Setting and Possible Treatment

Middle School

Hello Readers,

Our executive functions involve high level cognitive activities such as flexible thinking, focusing,regulating one’s alertness, regulating emotions, organizing and prioritizing, the ability to access one’s working memories, a well as one’s ability to self monitor their own thoughts and behaviors. In exercising our executive function, we are able to set goals, organize our tasks, prepare  our documents for the day and double check that we have everything we need before we dash out the door.


For a student the activities of their executive function helps them to meet the demands as they enter middle school and high-school where independence and efficiency are necessary skills. However what about those individuals who have dysfunctional  executive functioning? How do they function and manage with everyday activities? So today, I want to continue with our discussion on major executive functioning in the brain. In particular, I would like to pay attention to how executive dysfunction can impact a student’s academic as well as everyday life and possible methods for them to overcome it.

Typically those with ADHD have dysfunctional executive functions (http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/executive-function). The addition of a Learning Disability to an ADHD diagnosis appears to be associated with even worse executive dysfunction, and those with Executive Function Disorder struggle with executing daily tasks. For those individuals who suffers from these diagnoses, an analogy has been created to explain their executive function weaknesses- the “clogged funnel”. Essentially, the skills coordinated by the executive function areas of the brain become “stuck”, causing the information for the task to get “clogged” and so the student struggles to produce the correct results to complete the task.

executive-functions-impaired-ADD-ADHDThis is why such students may have trouble with open ended/ independent tasks due to inability to ‘unstick’ the higher cognitive skill set necessary to prioritize and organize their thoughts and or tasks. Likewise they may also have difficulty constructing a “bigger picture”. These students who cannot seem to “unclog the tunnel” may try incredibly hard and yet still be labelled lazy, or become frustrated or anxious, and as a result, make less effort towards their school work.

However, there are working solutions, research shows, that can assist students with executive weakness and help them overcome their personal challenges. For instance, Cognitive Behavioral therapy is a frequently suggested treatment and has showed a significant increased in positive treatment outcomes compared with individual therapy. 16 different executive related items were reduced following the treatment. Psychosocial treatments is another promising alternative. It is complicated and difficult to apply, however has been shown to show improvements in areas of time management and organization.

In addition, there are a few things parents can do to help students in addition. Firstly, parents can help their children set well defined goals for projects and studying for tests. In addition to this helping their child divide and conquer upcoming assignments will make it more likely to accomplish such goals. Encouraging their children to design personalized checklists based off of common mistakes also ensures that tasks completely to the criteria and handed in on time.


Mindfulness in the Classroom

Mindfulness in the Classroom

Middle School


Welcome to the weekly school update formerly known as The Study Academy Report. Today, I want to bring up a practice conducted at The Study Academy that I find, personally, very enlightening.

The idea of focused attention in Mindfulness MeditationFor some time now, the Middle School students have been engaging in Mindfulness practices before beginning class sessions. What is Mindfulness? That’s a bit too challenging a task to accomplish in one sentence, however for the time being I will have to do it this slight injustice till we discuss it in more detail on Thursday. Mindfulness is the practice of learning to direct our attention to our experience as they unfold, moment by moment with open-mindedness and focused attention. Students would assume a posture and rest their attention on their breath. If their attention wandered away from their breath, that is to say, if the thought of what they had for lunch pops into their head, they are to gently bring their attention back to their body.

The incorporation of the practice is in line with Mind, Brain, Education structure at the school. There has been rigorous work done on the relationship between the practice of Mindfulness to our brains, our ability to focus, learn and interact. At The Study Academy, Mindfulness practice and Meditation are used to enhance awareness of the student and help their emotional regulation. The practice also is in line with the aims of the Pastoral care included in the Educational structure of the school, as Byran indeed encourages and provides strategies that promote Mindfulness.

John Vervake giving a talk about Mindfulness Meditation at a Ted Talk at U of TThe Mindfulness and Meditation exercises were taught by Dr. John Vervaeke (http://johnvervaeke.com/wordpress/) , a lecturer at the University of Toronto and involved in both the Psychology department, Cognitive Science Department, and the newly formed Buddhism, Psychology and Mental Health program (http://www.newcollege.utoronto.ca/academics/new-college-academic-programs/buddhism-psychology-and-mental-health/centre-for-buddhism-and-psychology/the-buddhism-psychology-mental-health-program/). His research interests are relevance realization, insight problem-solving, the nature of general intelligence, consciousness, mindfulness, and wisdom. These are  important to Education, therefore he was an ideal person to come and teach those ready to learn about this ancient practice. Since then the practice has been providing the students a period of time to get ready to learn once again.

While, I will admit as an individual who dabbles in Mindfulness Meditation, it is not an easy practice to jump into. Your mind will naturally wander, however, with time I found the experience to have such wonderful effects. From my personal experience, I feel it is such a great practice to integrate into our Educational institutions. So you know what? That’s exactly what I’m going to discuss with you all on this  week’s Theoretical Thursday.

See you soon!

Theoretical Thursday: Education, Neurofeedback Training and Attention

Theoretical Thursday: Education, Neurofeedback Training and Attention

Middle School

Hello again!

Today on this Theoretical Thursday I want to continue from Tuesday’s post by expanding our discussion on Neurofeedback. I know, that in my first Theoretical Thursday Blog post last week that I had hinted there was going to be discussion on the scientific literature on study habits, but I feel that this is far more relevant to you, my readers. Don’t you worry, there will be plenty of time to get into that later on.

So, in my Tuesday post, I had defined Neurofeedback as, “ a type of feedback based off of the ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain.The electrical recordings from the scalp measure the flow of the ionic current that changes depending on the mental activity.” I had also mentioned that it is of current scientific interest in how Neurofeedback can be used to reduce attentional issues.

I believe this is an incredibly important issue that needs to be addressed by Science for the sake of our Educational system. The reason for this is because such a growing population struggles with deficits in attention of a neurologically based that affect their ability to learn, and prosper in an academic setting.

Aside from The Study Academy, there have been a good amount of research that has come out recently on the prospects of Neurofeedback training for those diagnosed with ADHD.

At the Tuffs Medical Center in Boston, where the team of the Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics department, tested the the efficacy of two computer-based attention training systems, one with and one without neurofeedback using 19 schools. Students received three 45 minutes sessions a week over the span of four months. After each session results were measured using three measures:

T-SKAMP- completed by teachers which assessed symptoms of ADHD in the classroom

PERMP- completed by students which was assessed based off of a student’s speed and accuracy.

BOSS- this was a double-blind objective classroom observations

The results indicated that those students in the Neurofeedback group showed improvement in all three measures; improvement in accuracy and speed, a decreased in attentional issues, and increased engagement within the classroom.

These sort of results are particularly exciting for the Educational and Health community when one also considers that Neurofeedback has recently been shown in research to have long term beneficial effects on ADHD! This is a factor that medicine based care has had considerable trouble in doing for those who are diagnosed with ADHD.

Palliative pharmaceutical therapy has dominated both research investment and publication. However, while these methods of palliative care have received the most attention, it leaves the underlying causes predominately unchanged.  It is the the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) which is so key in regulating attention, and with which whose dysfunction has been shown to be associated with attentional issues.

Studies in Neurofeedback training do in fact show the capacity to counteract, and normalize the dysfunctions in the ACC with regards to attention. Having participants engage in a process where they are attenuating peripheral signals and enhancing relevant signals, individuals initiate one of the necessary conditions for cognitive development. Furthermore, through repetitive reinforcement  of this regime, individuals can further reinforce the same neural pathway.

In this respect, i seem to find Neurofeedback to be an exciting alternative to palliative methods of dealing with attentional issues, especially within our Educational setting.

If you are interested in some extra reading, may I suggest the following:

Gani, C., Birbaumer, N., Strehl, U. (2008) Long term effects after feedback of slow cortical potentials and of theta-beta-amplitudes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism, 10 (4), 209 – 232.


Arns, M., De Ritter, D., Strehl, U., Breteler, M., Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3), 180-189.


They are both insightful and quite interesting in their conclusions.